Assessment feedback plays a crucial role in supporting student learning and growth. By providing timely and constructive feedback, educators can guide students' progress, deepen their understanding, and enhance their overall academic achievement. Providing feedback is not a one-time event; it should be an ongoing and iterative process. By offering regular and consistent feedback, educators can support students' progress and growth throughout their learning journey. Feedback should be aligned with learning goals and linked to specific criteria or Rubrics and Grading, ensuring that it is meaningful, targeted, and relevant to the desired learning outcomes. Ultimately, assessment feedback serves as a catalyst for student learning and development. It cultivates a culture of continuous improvement, where students are encouraged to reflect, set goals, and strive for excellence. 

Feedback Strategies 
Feedback strategies encompass a range of approaches designed to provide students with valuable insights into their performance and areas for improvement. Effective feedback goes beyond simply pointing out mistakes; it offers specific and actionable guidance to help students enhance their skills and knowledge. Whether delivered verbally, in writing, or through video recordings, feedback should be personalized, clear, and focused on both strengths and areas of growth.

The Power of Instructional Assessment Feedback

Instructional assessment feedback is more than just correcting mistakes or assigning grades; it is a formative process that nurtures learning. Effective feedback encourages reflection, helps learners set goals, and serves as a catalyst for continuous improvement. When delivered thoughtfully, feedback can inspire confidence and foster a growth mindset among students.

Key Elements of Feedback:
  • Timeliness: Provide feedback promptly to ensure its relevance to the learning process.
  • Specificity: Offer detailed and specific feedback that addresses particular aspects of students' work or performance.
  • Constructive Nature: Frame feedback in a positive and constructive manner to encourage student engagement.
  • Actionable Recommendations: Include actionable suggestions for improvement to guide learners' progress.
  • Individualized Approach: Tailor feedback to meet the unique needs and learning styles of each student.
Essential Feedback Strategies:
  • Formative Feedback: Offer ongoing feedback during the learning process to support student growth and understanding.
  • Peer Feedback: Encourage students to provide feedback to their peers, promoting collaboration and diverse perspectives.
  • Rubrics and Checklists: Use clear rubrics and checklists to provide structured feedback and transparent evaluation criteria.
  • Audio and Video Feedback: Deliver personalized feedback using audio or video recordings to enhance clarity and connection.
  • Self-Assessment and Reflection: Encourage students to assess their own work and reflect on their learning progress.
Benefits of Effective Feedback:
  • Empowered Learners: Feedback cultivates a sense of ownership and responsibility for learning outcomes.
  • Targeted Growth: Specific feedback addresses individual learning gaps, promoting continuous improvement.
  • Enhanced Engagement: Engaging feedback fosters motivation and active participation in the learning process.
  • Confidence Building: Constructive feedback builds students' confidence and belief in their abilities.
  • Strong Teacher-Student Relationships: Effective feedback strengthens teacher-student bonds, fostering a positive learning environment.
Implementing Feedback Strategies in Practice:
  • Personalized Approach: Tailor feedback to address individual learning needs and support diverse learners.
  • Feedback Consistency: Ensure consistency in feedback delivery across all students to maintain fairness.
  • Goal-Oriented Feedback: Align feedback with learning objectives and encourage goal-setting for students.
  • Student-Teacher Dialogue: Facilitate open communication and two-way dialogue to address student concerns.
  • Feedback Assessment: Continuously assess the impact of feedback strategies to refine and improve their effectiveness.

Instructional assessment feedback is a transformative tool that empowers educators to inspire growth, achievement, and lifelong learning in their students. By embracing purposeful feedback strategies, educators foster an environment where learners are encouraged to strive for excellence, embrace challenges, and celebrate progress. When feedback is timely, specific, and supportive, students are motivated to take ownership of their learning and become active participants in their educational journey. As educators master the art of instructional assessment feedback, they nurture a culture of continuous improvement, where both students and educators collaborate to achieve academic success and unlock the boundless potential within each learner.

Additional Resources

Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. (2017, July 21). Feedback Strategies for Your Online Course [Video]. YouTube. 

Feedback. Center for Teaching Excellence, University of Flordia.

Haughney, K., Wakeman, S., & Hart, L. (2020). Quality of feedback in higher education: A review of literature. Education Sciences, 10(3), 60.

Jonsson, A. (2013). Facilitating productive use of feedback in higher education. Active Learning in Higher Education, 14(1), 63-76.

Shani Fleming. (2020, February 8). Best practices of feedback (part 1) [Video]. YouTube.

Shani Fleming. (2020, February 8). Best practices of feedback (part 2) [Video]. YouTube.


Creative Commons License
Feedback Strategies by Open AI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Verbal Feedback 
Verbal feedback allows for direct communication between educators and students, fostering a supportive and interactive learning environment. By engaging in one-on-one conversations or class discussions, educators can offer immediate feedback, address misconceptions, and provide guidance on how to enhance learning outcomes.

The Significance of Verbal Feedback

Verbal feedback is a dynamic means of assessment that allows educators to engage with students directly, fostering a deeper connection between teacher and learner. Through verbal exchanges, educators can provide real-time insights, address misunderstandings, and celebrate achievements, creating a supportive and empowering learning environment.

Key Elements of Verbal Feedback:
  • Timeliness: Deliver feedback promptly to reinforce the learning process and enhance its impact.
  • Personalized Communication: Tailor feedback to individual learners' needs and progress.
  • Encouraging Tone: Employ an encouraging and supportive tone to motivate students and nurture their confidence.
  • Two-Way Interaction: Facilitate two-way dialogue to allow students to seek clarifications and engage in discussions.
  • Actionable Recommendations: Offer specific suggestions for improvement to guide learners' advancement.
Effective Verbal Feedback Strategies:
  • In-Class Discussions: Engage students in classroom discussions to provide real-time feedback and address questions.
  • One-on-One Conferences: Schedule individual meetings with students to offer personalized feedback and goal-setting.
  • Immediate Response: Offer on-the-spot feedback during class activities or presentations for timely support.
  • Peer Feedback Facilitation: Encourage students to provide verbal feedback to their peers during group activities.
  • Positive Reinforcement: Celebrate student achievements and efforts through verbal praise and recognition.
Benefits of Verbal Feedback:
  • Direct Engagement: Verbal feedback creates a direct and immediate connection with students, fostering engagement.
  • Personalized Guidance: Tailored verbal feedback addresses individual learning needs, promoting growth.
  • Increased Clarity: Real-time verbal feedback can quickly clarify misunderstandings and clear doubts.
  • Motivation and Empowerment: Encouraging verbal feedback nurtures student confidence and motivation.
  • Teacher-Student Connection: Verbal feedback strengthens teacher-student relationships and promotes a positive learning atmosphere.
Implementing Verbal Feedback in Practice:
  • Create a Safe Space: Foster a supportive and safe classroom environment where students feel comfortable receiving feedback.
  • Effective Communication Skills: Develop strong communication skills to deliver feedback clearly and compassionately.
  • Balance Praise and Constructive Criticism: Offer both positive reinforcement and constructive suggestions for growth.
  • Encourage Student Input: Invite students to share their thoughts on how they prefer to receive feedback.
  • Reflect and Improve: Continuously assess the impact of verbal feedback to refine and enhance its effectiveness.

Verbal feedback is a powerful tool that empowers educators to provide personalized, real-time guidance to their students. Through direct communication, educators can motivate, clarify, and inspire learners to excel. By implementing effective verbal feedback strategies, educators create a learning environment where students feel supported, understood, and encouraged to embrace challenges. As educators embrace the art of verbal feedback, they unlock the potential to foster deep connections, elevate learning outcomes, and nurture a love for learning that will accompany students throughout their educational journey and beyond.

Additional Resources

Agricola, B. T., Prins, F. J., & Sluijsmans, D. M. (2020). Impact of feedback request forms and verbal feedback on higher education students’ feedback perception, self-efficacy, and motivation. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 27(1), 6-25.

Johnson, C. E., Keating, J. L., Boud, D. J., Dalton, M., Kiegaldie, D., Hay, M., McGrath, B., McKenzie, W. A., Nair, K. B. R., Nestel, D., Palermo, C., & Molloy, E. K. (2016). Identifying educator behaviours for high quality verbal feedback in health professions education: literature review and expert refinement. BMC Medical Education, 16, 1-11.

Oxford Teaching Ideas (2021). Giving effective feedback. Centre for Teaching and Learning, University of Oxford.

Tocco, A. (2021, October 19). Verbal feedback: An alternative to standard student evaluations [Blog post]. Center for the Enhancement of Teaching & Learning, University of Northern Colorado.


Creative Commons License
Verbal Feedback by Open AI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Written Feedback 
Written feedback provides students with tangible comments and suggestions on their work. Written feedback can be detailed, highlighting specific areas of strength and areas for improvement. It allows students to reflect on their performance, revisit their work, and make revisions based on the feedback received.

The Significance of Written FeedbackOverview

Written feedback serves as a valuable channel for educators to communicate with students beyond the classroom. Through written comments, educators can offer personalized guidance, foster metacognition, and inspire learners to take ownership of their learning process.

Key Elements of Written Feedback:
  • Clarity and Specificity: Provide clear and specific comments that address particular aspects of students' work or performance.
  • Constructive Tone: Frame feedback in a constructive and supportive manner to encourage growth and improvement.
  • Individualized Approach: Tailor feedback to address each student's unique strengths, challenges, and learning styles.
  • Encouraging Growth: Offer actionable recommendations that empower students to progress and enhance their skills.
  • Timely Delivery: Deliver feedback in a timely manner to ensure its relevance and impact on student learning.
Effective Written Feedback Strategies:
  • Detailed Written Comments: Provide comprehensive written feedback that addresses both strengths and areas for improvement.
  • Rubrics and Checklists: Use rubrics or checklists to structure feedback and align it with specific evaluation criteria.
  • Goal-Oriented Feedback: Encourage students to set learning goals and align written feedback to support their objectives.
  • Positive Reinforcement: Celebrate students' efforts and achievements through positive and encouraging written praise.
  • Self-Reflection Prompts: Include self-reflection prompts to encourage students to assess their work and progress.
Benefits of Written Feedback:
  • In-Depth Guidance: Written feedback allows for detailed and comprehensive guidance on student performance.
  • Personalized Support: Tailored written comments address individual learning needs and foster growth.
  • Metacognitive Development: Written feedback encourages students to think critically about their work and learning process.
  • Encouragement and Motivation: Constructive written feedback inspires students to take on challenges with confidence.
  • Continuous Improvement: Written comments offer a tangible record of progress, supporting ongoing development.
Implementing Written Feedback in Practice:
  • Timely and Consistent: Deliver feedback promptly and consistently to ensure its relevance and impact.
  • Encourage Student-Teacher Dialogue: Invite students to seek clarification or discuss feedback for a deeper understanding.
  • Use Positive Language: Frame feedback in a positive and constructive manner to foster a supportive learning environment.
  • Recognize Efforts: Acknowledge students' efforts and dedication to motivate further engagement.
  • Continuous Learning: Reflect on the effectiveness of written feedback strategies to improve future practices.

Written feedback is an invaluable tool that empowers educators to guide students' growth, enhance learning outcomes, and cultivate a sense of ownership over their academic journey. Through written comments, educators can provide students with detailed insights, celebrate their achievements, and support their progress. By embracing effective written feedback strategies, educators create a learning environment where students feel encouraged, inspired, and empowered to pursue excellence. As educators harness the potential of written feedback, they build a bridge of communication that nurtures student development, elevates academic achievement, and fosters a lifelong love for learning.

Additional Resources

Effective feedback. Academy for Teaching and Learning, Baylor University.

Gul, R. B., Tharani, A., Lakhani, A., Rizvi, N. F., & Ali, S. K. (2016). Teachers’ perceptions and practices of written feedback in higher education. World Journal of Education, 6(3), 10-20.

Ion, G., Cano-García, E., & Fernández-Ferrer, M. (2017). Enhancing self-regulated learning through using written feedback in higher education. International Journal of Educational Research, 85, 1-10.

Kumar, V., & Stracke, E. (2007). An analysis of written feedback on a PhD thesis. Teaching in Higher Education, 12(4), 461-470.


Creative Commons License
Written Feedback by Open AI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Video Feedback 
Video feedback is a powerful medium that combines the benefits of verbal and written feedback. Educators can record personalized feedback messages, offering a rich and engaging learning experience for students. Video feedback enables educators to provide visual cues, demonstrations, and examples, enhancing students' understanding and fostering a deeper connection between feedback and learning outcomes.

The Significance of Video Feedback

Video feedback provides a unique and powerful way for educators to connect with their students on a more personal level. By combining audio and visual elements, video feedback offers students a deeper understanding of their performance, fosters metacognition, and inspires growth.

Key Elements of Video Feedback:
  • Visual Clarity: Use video to provide a clear and visual representation of specific aspects of students' work or performance.
  • Personalized Tone: Deliver video feedback in a supportive and encouraging manner to motivate students.
  • Demonstration and Modeling: Incorporate video examples to demonstrate concepts or techniques for improvement.
  • Instant Replay: Allow students to review video feedback repeatedly to reinforce understanding and learning.
  • Goal-Oriented Approach: Align video feedback with students' learning goals to support their progress.
Effective Video Feedback Strategies:
  • Screen Capture Feedback: Use screen recording to provide step-by-step feedback on digital work or projects.
  • Performance Analysis: Record and review videos of student performances for detailed feedback and coaching.
  • Modeling Techniques: Create video demonstrations to showcase correct techniques and approaches.
  • Interactive Feedback: Engage students in two-way videoconferencing conversations for clarifications and deeper discussions (e.g., Zoom, WebEx, MS Teams).
  • Narration and Visual Markers: Include voice-over narration and on-screen annotations for clear feedback delivery.
Benefits of Video Feedback:
  • Visual Understanding: Video feedback may provide students with a visual representation of their performance.
  • Personalized Learning: Tailored video feedback addresses individual learning needs, promoting growth.
  • Metacognitive Development: Video feedback encourages students to reflect on their work and learning process.
  • Enhanced Engagement: Visual and interactive elements in video feedback foster student engagement.
  • Improved Self-Awareness: Video feedback promotes self-awareness and a deeper understanding of strengths and areas for improvement.
Implementing Video Feedback in Practice:
  • User-Friendly Tools: Use user-friendly video feedback tools to simplify the feedback creation process.
  • Encourage Self-Review: Encourage students to review their own video feedback and set improvement goals.
  • Balanced and Specific: Provide a balanced mix of positive reinforcement and constructive suggestions.
  • Student-Centered Approach: Tailor video feedback to address individual student needs.
  • Assessment and Reflection: Encourage students to reflect on the video feedback and discuss their progress.

Video feedback is an innovative and powerful tool that enables educators to offer personalized, interactive, and visually engaging guidance to their students. By harnessing the potential of video, educators can create a supportive and dynamic learning environment that fosters student growth and self-awareness. Through video feedback, students gain valuable insights into their performance, inspiring them to take ownership of their learning journey. As educators embrace video feedback as a transformative instructional tool, they bridge the gap between instruction and assessment, creating a pathway to insightful learning, and nurturing a love for continuous improvement and academic excellence.

Additional Resources

Anthology Inc. (2018, July 9). Feedback Recording in Blackboard Learn with the Ultra Course View [Video]. YouTube.

Belt, E. S., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2021). Video use in online and blended courses: A qualitative synthesis. Distance Education, 42(3), 410-440.

FCTL UMB. (2020, November 10). Using video as a teaching and social tool in online courses [Video]. YouTube.

Lowenthal, P. R. (2021). Video feedback: is it worth the effort? A response to Borup et al. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69, 127-131.

Lowenthal, P. R., Fiock, H. S., Shreaves, D. L., & Belt, E. S. (2022). Investigating students’ perceptions of screencasting style of video feedback in online courses. TechTrends, 66(2), 265-275.

Mahoney, P., Macfarlane, S., & Ajjawi, R. (2019). A qualitative synthesis of video feedback in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 24(2), 157-179.

Penna, C. (2019, May 10). Three ways to use video feedback to enhance student engagement [Blog post]. The Scholarly Teacher.

Thomas, R. A., West, R. E., & Borup, J. (2017). An analysis of instructor social presence in online text and asynchronous video feedback comments. The Internet and Higher Education, 33, 61-73.


Creative Commons License
Video Feedback by Open AI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Audio Feedback 
Audio feedback offers a dynamic and human touch to the assessment process. By using voice recordings, educators can provide nuanced, expressive, and personalized feedback that goes beyond traditional written comments. Audio feedback enhances the learning experience, fostering a sense of connection and motivation in students.

The Significance of Audio Feedback

As a modern and versatile approach to instructional assessment, audio feedback harnesses the power of personalized voice guidance to inspire student growth and engagement. Through recorded audio messages, educators can deliver thoughtful evaluations, constructive suggestions, and encouraging praise to support student learning.

Key Elements of Audio Feedback:
  • Personalized Voice: Use the power of voice to deliver customized feedback tailored to each student's needs.
  • Empathy and Tone: Employ a supportive and empathetic tone to inspire confidence and encourage progress.
  • Clarity and Detail: Provide clear and detailed feedback that highlights specific areas of improvement.
  • Timely Delivery: Offer audio feedback promptly to reinforce learning and facilitate timely adjustments.
  • Encouragement and Praise: Celebrate students' efforts and accomplishments through encouraging voice messages.
Effective Audio Feedback Strategies:
  • Individualized Messages: Record personalized audio messages for each student, addressing their unique strengths and challenges.
  • Audio Annotations: Use audio annotations on digital assignments to deliver detailed feedback on specific sections.
  • Dialogue and Reflection: Encourage students to respond to audio feedback, fostering two-way communication and self-reflection.
  • Clarifying Complex Concepts: Use audio explanations to simplify complex topics and provide in-depth understanding.
  • Pacing and Enthusiasm: Use pacing and enthusiasm in voice delivery to engage students and maintain interest.
Benefits of Audio Feedback:
  • Personal Connection: Audio feedback establishes a personal connection between educators and students.
  • Enhanced Understanding: Nuanced voice inflections and tone can convey meaning beyond written comments.
  • Motivation and Confidence: Supportive audio feedback boosts student confidence and motivation to excel.
  • Focused Improvement: Detailed audio feedback helps students target specific areas for growth.
  • Inclusivity and Accessibility: Audio feedback benefits students with different learning preferences and accessibility needs.
Implementing Audio Feedback in Practice:
  • User-Friendly Tools: Use user-friendly audio feedback tools to create seamless voice recordings.
  • Balanced Feedback: Offer a balanced mix of positive reinforcement and constructive suggestions.
  • Encourage Active Listening: Promote active listening to audio feedback to maximize its impact.
  • Feedback Portfolio: Allow students to compile audio feedback as a valuable resource for ongoing growth.
  • Continuous Improvement: Reflect on the effectiveness of audio feedback strategies to refine and improve practices.

Audio feedback is an impactful and versatile instructional tool that empowers educators to establish a genuine connection with their students. By leveraging the power of voice, educators can provide personalized and engaging feedback that nurtures student growth and inspires academic success. Through audio feedback, students experience an inclusive and supportive learning environment, where their unique strengths are celebrated, and their challenges are addressed with empathy. As educators embrace the transformative potential of audio feedback, they unlock the pathway to insightful learning, strengthened student-teacher relationships, and love for continuous improvement and lifelong learning.

Additional Resources

Gould, J., & Day, P. (2013). Hearing you loud and clear: Student perspectives of audio feedback in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 38(5), 554-566.

Ice, P., Curtis, R., Phillips, P., & Wells, J. (2007). Using asynchronous audio feedback to enhance teaching presence and students' sense of community. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(2), 3-25.

Lunt, T., & Curran, J. (2010). ‘Are you listening please?’The advantages of electronic audio feedback compared to written feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(7), 759-769.

Rasi, P., & Vuojärvi, H. (2018). Toward personal and emotional connectivity in mobile higher education through asynchronous formative audio feedback. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(2), 292-304.

Rawle, F., Thuna, M., Zhao, T., & Kaler, M. (2018). Audio Feedback: Student and Teaching Assistant Perspectives on an Alternative Mode of Feedback for Written Assignments. Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 9(2), n2, 1-17.

Sanders, L. (2017, April 17). Audio feedback: More band for the buck [Blog post]. Online Learning, Portland Community College.


Creative Commons License
Audio Feedback by Open AI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.