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Integrated Emergency Operations Plan
Concept of Operations
The Emergency Management Director (EMD) will oversee the development of, coordination of, and revisions to this plan. The plan is designed to prepare for and manage emergencies in a comprehensive manner.
As outlined in Figure 2 and discussed in subsequent sections, this involves an ongoing cycle of mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery activities.
To help the University manage its response to emergencies, it classifies them according to their severity and potential impact. This also assists in communicating the resources the University needs to properly respond to the emergency.
|Level 1||Level 2||Level 3|
|Impact to operations or services||Major or complete||Intermediate||Limited|
|Evacuation||Multiple buildings or entire University||Floor or building||None or immediate area only|
|Participation||All University response units and multiple outside responders||Key University response units and limited outside responders||University response units only|
|Risk of injury||Likely||Possible||Possible|
- LEVEL 1: A major disaster or imminent threat involving the entire campus and/or surrounding community.
Immediate notification to the Emergency Management Director is mandatory. Normal University operations are reduced or suspended. The effects of the emergency are wide‐ranging and complex. A timely resolution of disaster conditions requires Universitywide cooperation and extensive coordination with external agencies and jurisdictions.
- LEVEL 2: An emergency or potential threat that disrupts sizable portions of the campus community.
Notification of Emergency Management Director determined by IC or designated official. Level 2 emergencies may require assistance from external organizations. These events have the potential to escalate quickly and have serious consequences for mission‐critical functions, or may threaten life safety.
- LEVEL 3: A minor, localized department or building incident that is quickly resolved with existing University resources or limited outside help.
Notification to Emergency Management Director not normally needed unless there is the potential for the emergency to escalate. A Level 3 emergency has little or no impact on personnel or normal operations outside the locally affected area.
Mitigation and Prevention Programs
The University conducts mitigation and prevention activities to reduce the potential for and impact of emergencies on the University and the local community. The goal of these programs is to reduce potential hazards and vulnerabilities to the University and their impact if they should occur. These programs include comprehensive security, safety, and fire prevention programs. They are integrated into every aspect of University business, from the design and construction of new buildings, background checks of employees, and ongoing programs to identify and mitigate hazards.
Preparedness Programs and Activities
The University prepares for emergencies through a systematic process of vulnerability assessment and readiness exercises. Preparedness activities include:
- Identifying and obtaining emergency equipment and resources.
- Emergency planning and program development to include ongoing emergency response training, an emergency warden and building coordinator program, monthly meetings of the Emergency Management Team, and the development and maintenance of Continuity of Operations Plans.
- Conducting periodic exercises to identify weaknesses in emergency response plans and capabilities and taking corrective action to address these.
- Comprehensive training of emergency personnel.
- Threat Response and Assessment Coordination Team program.
- Establishment of mutual aid agreements with regional universities and government agencies.
- Conducting periodic inspections of facilities for hazards and new risks.
- Conducting a comprehensive annual vulnerability risk assessment.
The University shall respond promptly and in an appropriate manner to all emergencies. The University shall base its response on the following priorities:
- First priority: Life safety
- Second priority: Incident stabilization
- Third priority: Property conservation
Emergency notification and communication with internal and external stakeholders is a critical element of emergency management. Each emergency situation has unique circumstances and requirements. UMB emergency managers must be flexible when meeting their requirements to notify stakeholders of an emergency and when directing emergency response actions. However, the nominal sequence of notification is as follows:
- A member of the campus community identifies an emergency situation and calls the University Police.
- University Police evaluate the situation, take action within the scope of their operational responsibilities, and make appropriate notifications to internal and external stakeholders.
- First responders follow the principles of the Incident Command System.
- The Incident Commander (IC) assumes command, establishes an Incident Command Post (ICP), and assigns responsibilities to his command and general staff members.
- The University Police notify the UMB Emergency Management Director (EMD) of a campus emergency.
- The EMD notifies the Emergency Management Team (EMT) and designates an Emergency Operations Center (EOC).
- The IC determines the need and scope for campus notification and gives such direction to the Public Information Officer (PIO).
- The EMD determines the need and scope for supplemental campus notification and gives such direction to the AVP for Communications and Marketing.
The AVP for Communications and Marketing (or designee) is a member of the EMT and will normally be located with the EMT in the EOC. That person’s role is to assist the EMD in creating and disseminating internal and external messages authorized by the EMD. The AVP for Communications and Marketing or designee will also identify a media relations representative who will be located at the ICP and serve as the PIO for the IC.
The PIO and the AVP for Communications and Marketing have a number of options for communicating with internal and external stakeholders. The selection of the communication channels to be used depends upon the nature and magnitude of the emergency and the direction of the IC and the EMD. The communication modes and their features are as follows:
- Email distribution lists
- e2Campus, the campus electronic notification system, also known as Campus Alerts
- Building Voice Announcement Systems
- University Police, Facilities Management, and Parking and Transportation Services radio systems
- Emergency wardens: There are at least two emergency wardens for every floor of every UMB building.
- Building coordinators: There is a building coordinator assigned to every UMB building.
Internal and External Communication
- Web‐based: There are several types of web‐based communication modes that may be used to communicate with internal and external stakeholders.
- Campus Alerts page
- UMB and/or school home pages
- Social media.
- Media (TV, radio, and newspapers)
In an expanding emergency that involves multiple agencies and/or jurisdictions, a Unified Command may be established. In that case the principles of a Joint Information System (JIS) will be established. JIS integrates incident information and public affairs into a cohesive organization designed to provide consistent, coordinated, accurate, accessible, timely, and complete information during crisis or incident operations. The mission of the JIS is to provide a structure and system for developing and delivering coordinated interagency messages; developing, recommending, and executing public information plans and strategies on behalf of the IC; advising the IC concerning public affairs issues that could affect a response effort; and controlling rumors and inaccurate information that could undermine public confidence in the emergency response effort. The AVP for Communications and Marketing will designate the UMB representative to participate in the JIS. Once Unified Command has been established, a Joint Information Center (JIC) will be created to coordinate all incident‐related public information activities. It is the central point of contact for all news media. Public information officials from all participating agencies should co‐locate at the JIC.
A complete list of contact information for command and general staff, key campus units, and the Emergency Management Team members will be maintained at all times by the Emergency Management Director, the Department of Public Safety Dispatch Center, and the Maintenance Service Center.
Assessment and Response
For any incident, the person currently in charge (Incident Commander) must do at least the following:
- Assess the situation.
- Determine if life is at immediate risk.
- Ensure that personnel safety factors are taken into account.
- Determine if there are any environmental issues that need to be addressed.
From that point, the Incident Commander shall develop initial response actions to effectively manage the event. Initial response activities include:
- Assume command and establish the Incident Command Post.
- Establish immediate incident objectives, strategies, and tactics. The size‐up should provide information about what needs to be done first to prevent loss of life or injury and to stabilize the situation. For small incidents, the initial Incident Action Plan (IAP) may be verbal and may cover the entire incident. For larger, more complex incidents, the initial IAP may cover the initial operating period. A written IAP will then be developed.
- Determine if there are enough resources of the right kind and type on scene or ordered. The incident objectives will drive resource requirements.
- Establish the initial organization structure need to properly address the emergency and maintain the proper span of control.
- Ensure that the Emergency Management Director (EMD) has been notified of all Level 1 and 2 emergencies.
Progressive Response to an Emergency
As outlined in the NIMS Planning, the University’s response to an emergency can vary from a simple individual unit response with verbal incident objectives up to a full response from the University and outside agencies and a written Incident Action Plan (IAP). The following section outlines the process involved in responding to a large-scale emergency.
Understand the situation: The first step to responding to an emergency is to gather, record, and analyze information in a manner that will facilitate:
- Increased situational awareness of the magnitude, complexity, and potential impact of the incident.
- The ability to determine the resources required to develop and implement an effective IAP.
- Determining command and general staff needed to manage the emergency.
Establish incident objectives and strategy: Next, incident objectives must be developed and prioritized for the response to the emergency. The incident objectives must conform to the legal obligations and management objectives of all affected campus units and responding agencies. Reasonable alternative strategies that will accomplish overall incident objectives should also be identified, analyzed, and evaluated to determine the most appropriate strategy for the situation at hand. Evaluation criteria include public health and safety factors, estimated costs, environment, legal, and political considerations.
Develop an appropriate response plan: Determine the tactical direction and the specific resources, reserves, and support requirements for implementing the selected strategies and tactics for the operational period. Before formal planning meetings, each member of the command and general staffs is responsible for gathering information pertinent to their role in the response.
Prepare and disseminate the response plan: Prepare the response to the emergency in a format that is appropriate for the level of complexity of the incident. For the initial response, the format is a well‐prepared outline for an oral briefing. For most incidents that will span multiple operational periods, the plan will be developed in writing according to ICS procedures.
Execute, evaluate, and revise the response plan: The planning process includes the requirement to execute and evaluate planned activities and check the accuracy of information to be used in planning for subsequent operational periods. The General Staff should regularly compare planned progress with actual progress. When deviations occur and when new information emerges, that information should be included in the first step of the process used for modifying the current plan or developing the plan for the subsequent operational period. For simple incidents of short duration, the IAP will be developed by the Incident Commander or that person’s designee and communicated to subordinates in a verbal briefing. The planning associated with this level of complexity does not warrant a formal planning meeting process as highlighted above.
- Conditions that may warrant a written IAP include when:
- Two or more jurisdictions are involved in the response.
- The incident continues into the next operational period.
- A number of ICS organizational elements are activated (typically when General Staff Sections are staffed).
- It is required by agency policy.
- A HAZMAT incident that has a potential to expose the public to hazardous materials (IAP required).
Written Incident Action Plan (IAP): A written IAP shall include the following elements:
- A clear statement of objectives and actions.
- A basis for measuring work effectiveness and cost effectiveness.
- A basis for measuring work progress and providing accountability.
- Documentation for postincident fiscal and legal activities.
Transfer of Command
A transfer of command may be needed when a more qualified Incident Commander arrives on scene or for emergencies that last multiple operational periods. The following key actions are required for a transfer of command from one incident commander to another.
- The incoming Incident Commander shall assess the situation with the current Incident Commander.
- The incoming Incident Commander shall receive a briefing from the current Incident Commander.
- The incoming and current Incident Commander shall determine an appropriate time for transfer of command and document the transfer (ICS Form 201).
- The incoming Incident Commander shall notify others of the change in incident command.
- If applicable, the incoming Incident Commander shall assign the current Incident Commander to another position in the incident organization.
A transfer of command briefing must be held by the current Incident Commander and take place face-to-face if possible. The briefing must cover the following:
- Incident history (what has happened)
- Priorities and objectives
- Current plan
- Resource assignments
- Incident organization
- Resources ordered/needed
- Facilities established
- Status of communications
- Any constraints or limitations as directed by policies and guidelines
- Incident potential
- Status of Delegation of Authority, inherent or specific
The University will maintain the capability to address both the short and long term impacts of emergencies. After life and safety issues have been addressed the primary goal is the restoration of normal operations. To facilitate this, the University has developed comprehensive Continuity of Operations Plans (COOPs) for each School and Unit. Personnel responsible for implementing the COOPs will receive training and participate in periodic exercises designed to test the integrity and viability of the plans.