Glossary

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A

ABLEISM
A system of oppression based on the social construction of superior and inferior physicality, which is expressed in individual, institutional, and cultural forms and functions for the benefit of those deemed able-bodied at the expense of those deemed disabled. [1]

ACHIEVEMENT GAP
An achievement gap occurs when one group of students (such as students grouped by race, ethnicity, or gender) outperforms another group and the different in average scores for the two groups is statistically significant (larger than the margin of error). The term is commonly used to refer to the racial achievement gap and widespread disparities that exist between Blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos compared to White and many Asian students in such educational outcomes as test scores, retention, completion, and college going-rates; and placement in special education, gifted, and advanced placement courses. [2] (See Disparities)

ADVERSE IMPACT
According to the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978), "Adverse impact is a substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion, or other employment decision, which works to the disadvantage of members of a race, sex, or ethnic group." Under federal equal employment opportunity law, the use of any selection procedure that has an adverse impact on any race, sex, or ethnic group is discriminatory unless the procedure has been properly validated or the use of the procedure is otherwise justified under federal law. [3]

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
Affirmative generally refers to remedy to address past practices of discrimination. Affirmative action in the employment arena describes the efforts of an organization to recruit and advance qualified people of color, women, persons with disabilities, and covered veterans. Required of federal contractors and subcontractors, affirmative action also is permissible voluntarily where it is based on documented underutilization of women and people of color. Affirmative action in education refers to admissions policies and practices that provide equal access to education for those groups that have been historically excluded or underrepresented. [4]

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAM
A management tool designed to ensure equal employment opportunity. A central premise underlying affirmative action is that, absent discrimination, over time an organization's workforce, generally, will reflect the gender, racial, and ethnic profile of the labor pools from which the contractor recruits and selects. Affirmative action programs contain a diagnostic component, which includes a number of quantitative analyses designed to evaluate the composition of the workforce of the contractor and compare it to the composition of the relevant labor pools. Affirmative action programs also include action-oriented programs. If women and people of color are not being employed at a rate to be expected given their availability in the relevant labor pool, the organization's affirmative action program includes specific practical steps designed to address this underutilization. Effective affirmative action programs also include internal auditing and reporting systems as a means of measuring the contractor's progress toward achieving the workforce that would be expected in the absence of discrimination. [5]

AFRICAN-AMERICAN OR BLACK
For U.S. governmental purposes, African-American is used interchangeably with Black and defined as: citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. [As an affirmation of identity, the choice of terminology is a matter of personal preference. Emerging at different times in history, both terms reflect the continually shifting nature of identity in relation to socio-political currents. In the United States, the descendants of Africans have preferred colored, then Negro, followed by African-American, and later, Black, to describe their common heritage, history, culture, and politics. [6] (See Black)

AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT (ADEA)
The 1967 act prohibits employment discrimination against persons 40 years of age or older. [7]

AGEISM
A system of oppression based on the social construction of age superiority and inferiority, which is expressed in individual, institutional, and cultural forms and functions for the benefit of some at the expense of others. [8]

AMERICAN INDIAN OR ALASKAN NATIVE
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community attachment.[9]

AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
Passed by Congress in 1990, this act requires that "reasonable accommodation" be made in public accommodations, including the workplace, for individuals with disabilities. [10]

ASIAN
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. [11]

ASSIMILATION
The policy and practice of repression, domination, and erasure by which marginalized cultures are merged into the dominant or mainstream culture. [12]

B

BIAS
A preference for or tendency toward a particular viewpoint or outcome. Bias stems from the internalization and institutionalization of particular values, beliefs, and assumptions. Not to be confused with bigotry, which is motivated by ill intent, bias can coexist unconsciously with good intentions, but nevertheless result in outcomes that are inclined to favor some groups over others. [13] (See Disparate Outcomes)

BICULTURAL
A person emotionally, romantically, or sexually attracted to more than one sex, gender, or gender identity though not necessarily simultaneously, in the same way, or to the same degree. [14]

BIRACIAL
Often used to describe a person whose parents belong to two different racial categories. Some critics argue that this usage promotes a biologistic concept of race based on blood quantum that denies the socially constructed nature of race. The term should not be used interchangeably with bicultural. For example, a child of a parent of Black/African descent and a parent of White/European descent may claim the ethnic cultures of both parents while nevertheless identifying racially as Black. [15]

BISEXUAL
A term used to describe an individual who has significant sexual and romantic attractions to members of both the same and opposite sex. [16]

BLACK OR AFRICAN-AMERICAN
For U.S. governmental purposes, African-American is used interchangeably with Black and defined as: citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. [As an affirmation of identity, the choice of terminology is a matter of personal preference. Emerging at different times in history, both terms reflect the continually shifting nature of identity in relation to socio-political currents. In the United States, the descendants of Africans have preferred colored, then Negro, followed by African-American, and later, Black, to describe their common heritage, history, culture, and politics. Since the advent of the Black Power movement of the 1960s, Black has come into popularity as an assertion of pride and empowerment. Nevertheless, the vernacular colored and Negro survives in limited contexts where it evokes positive, historic associations, as in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Negro National Anthem, but is no longer used to describe this group of people. [17]

C

CISGENDER
A term used to describe a person whose gender identity aligns with those typically associated with the sex assigned to them at birth. [18]

CIVIL RIGHTS
The legal rights guaranteed equally to all citizens; equal protection under the law. [19]

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964
Prohibits discrimination in programs receiving federal funds. Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of race or national origin in federally financially assisted programs. Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex (including pregnancy). [20]

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1991
Amends Civil Rights Act of 1964 by adding the protected category of "disability" and provides for appropriate remedies for intentional discrimination and unlawful harassment in the workplace. The 1991 Act does not affect court-ordered remedies, affirmative action, or conciliation agreements, which are in accordance with the law. [21]

CLASS
Definitions of class vary across disciplines. A comprehensive working definition by Yeskel and Leondar-Wright is that class is a relative social ranking based on income, wealth, status, and/or power. [22]

CLASSISM
A system of oppression based on the social construction of superiority and inferiority based on class, which is expressed in individual, institutional, and cultural forms and functions for the benefit of the dominant class at the expense of the rest. [23]

CLIMATE
Refers to the perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors reflecting the beliefs of an institution’s culture. [24] (See part of Culture)

CLOSET
The closet invokes the image of a dimly lit, stale, confining space in which it is difficult to live and grow. “Closeted” or “In the closet” describes an LGBTQIA person who has not disclosed their sexual orientation or gender identity. [25] (See Coming Out, Out)

COLORBLINDNESS
The claim not to see racial distinctions. Critics of this ideology argue that in the U.S. context the refusal to see race denies an often important aspect of personal and collective identity as well as the socio-historical forces that structure disparate outcomes based on race. Accordingly, one must see race and understand its impact in order to correct the effects of past and present racial oppression. [26]

COMING OUT
Coming out refers to coming out of the closet, as in the process through which lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and transsexual people recognize their sexual preferences and differences and integrate this knowledge into their personal and social lives, as well as the act of disclosure to others. [29] For many in the LGBTQIA, this is a continuing process, which occurs every time they meet someone new. Some gay men and lesbians choose to never come out to others. [27] (See Closet, Out)

CULTURE
While the definition of culture varies within and among academic disciplines, a comprehensive definition is that it denotes the way of life of a people, encompassing their ideas, values, beliefs, norms, language, traditions, and artifacts. Institutional cultures reflect the dominant culture of the society of which they are a part. As an organizational term, culture also refers to the values and beliefs of an institution. [28]

D

DISABILITY
Disability is socially constructed, defined by the social and functional criteria of a particular society. People are not born disabled, but rather labeled so. This understanding is reflected in the definition put forth by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990: The term disability means with respect to an individual (a) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of said individual; (b) a record of such an impairment; (c) being regarded as having such an impairment. [29]

DISCRIMINATION
Discrimination denotes different treatment. As a term of law, however, it refers specifically to the illegal denial of equal rights and protections based on such characteristics as gender, race, ethnicity, and disability. [30]

DISPARATE TREATMENT
Refers to the intentional different treatment of individuals and groups on bases prohibited by law. A term of law, disparate treatment triggers punitive liability. Not all different treatment is illegal. The law permits different treatment that is designed to advance equal opportunity and meets specific legal standards. Disparate treatment is only one cause of disparities across social groups that can often result from unintentional or unconscious bias. [31] (See Bias, Disparities)

DISPARITIES
Disparities commonly refer to group differences in educational, health, economic, legal, and other outcomes. Disparities highlight the salience of social group membership in structuring privilege and inequality. Disparities stem from intentional discrimination as well as from unconscious bias. [32] (See Achievement Gap, Bias, Discrimination, Disparate Treatment, Privilege)

DIVERSITY
Diversity embodies inclusiveness, mutual respect, and multiple perspectives and serves as a catalyst for change resulting in equity. It includes all aspects of human differences such as socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, language, nationality, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, geography, disability, and age, among other characteristics. [33]

E

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO)
The absence of illegal employment discrimination based on race, class, gender, religion, and nationality, as prohibited by a number of legislative acts and enforced by the courts. EEO laws prohibit specific types of discrimination in certain workplaces. [34] (See also Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION (EEOC)
Congress established the EEOC in 1965 to enforce Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibiting illegal discrimination in employment. The federal Government's premier civil rights agency is also charged with the enforcement of the Equal Pay Act (EPA), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). [35]

THE EQUAL PAY ACT OF 1963 (EPA)
The EPA provides employers may not pay unequal wages to men and women who perform jobs that require substantially equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions within the same establishment. [36]

EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT (ERA)
Written in 1923 by Alice Paul, suffragist leader and founder of the National Woman's Party, as a means of guaranteeing "equal justice under law" to women as well as men, the ERA has been introduced into every session of Congress since but has failed to be ratified by the required number of states. In the 110th Congress (2007-2008), the Equal Rights Amendment was introduced as S.J. Res. 10 (Sen. Edward Kennedy, Massachusetts, lead sponsor) and H.J. Res. 40 (Rep. Carolyn Maloney, New York, lead sponsor). These bills impose no deadline on the ratification process in their proposing clauses. The ERA Task Force of the National Council of Women's Organizations supports these bills and urges groups and individuals to advocate for more co-sponsors and passage. [37]

EQUALITY
Equal treatment that may or may not result in equitable outcomes. (See Equity) [38]

EQUITY
The proportional distribution or parity of desirable outcomes across groups. Sometimes confused with equality, equity refers to outcomes, while equality connotes equal treatment. Where individuals or groups are dissimilarly situated, equal treatment may be insufficient for or even detrimental to equitable outcomes. An example is individualized educational accommodations for students with disabilities, which treat some students differently to ensure their equitable access to education. [39] (See Parity)

ETHNIC GROUP
A group of people who share a sense of themselves as having a common heritage, ancestry, or shared historical past, which may be tied to identifiable physical, cultural, linguistic, and/or religious characteristics. Ethnicity should not be used interchangeably with race, as illustrated by the fact that Hispanics, designated an ethnic group in the United States, may nevertheless be of any race. [40]

ETHNICITY
The shared sense of a common heritage, ancestry, or historical past among an ethnic group (see Ethnic Group). Ethnicity is a distinct concept from race, as illustrated by the fact that Hispanics, designated an ethnic group in the United States, may nevertheless be of any race. In accordance with the Office of Management and Budget definition of ethnicity, the U.S. Census Bureau defines ethnicity or origin as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. [41]

ETHNOCENTRISM
Prejudicial views and different treatment of ethnic groups different from one’s own. Ethnocentrism should not be confused with racism, which is structured on the basis of race and not ethnicity. [42]

F

FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA)
The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 allows employees to take unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons, including for the birth of a child within one year of the child’s birth; adoption or placement of a child in foster care; the care of a child, spouse, or parent who has a serious health condition; a serious health condition that makes an employee unable to perform the essential functions of the job; or any qualifying exigency leave of a child, spouse, or parent in the military. Eligible employees are entitled to 12 workweeks of leave for these reasons. [43]

FEMINISM
Refers broadly to an ideology and movement advancing full gender equity. According to scholar/activist Angela Davis, there is general agreement that feminism in its many versions acknowledges the social impact of gender and involves opposition to misogyny. While differing in the names they call themselves, many who are committed to the ideal of gender equity believe, like Davis herself, that the most effective versions of feminism acknowledge the various ways gender, class, race, and sexual orientation inform each other. [44]

FEMINIST
While the term feminism refers broadly to an ideology and movement advancing full gender equity, according to scholar/activist Angela Davis, there is general agreement that feminism in its many versions acknowledges the social impact of gender and involves opposition to misogyny. Some women of color are reluctant to use "feminist" as a self-referential term, which they see as rooted to the particular historical experience of white middle-class women. Some, like writer Alice Walker, prefer the term "womanist," to mark their simultaneous commitments to eradicate racism and patriarchy. Other terms include Black, African, and Third World feminist. While differing in the names they call themselves, many who are committed to the ideal of gender equity believe, like Davis herself, that the most effective versions of feminism acknowledge the various ways gender, class, race, and sexual orientation inform each other. [45]

G

GAY
A term used to describe a person who is emotionally, romantically, or physically attracted to members of the same gender. [46]

GENDER AFFIRMING SURGERY
Surgical procedures that change one’s body to conform to one’s gender identity. These procedures may include “top surgery” (breast augmentations or removal) and “bottom surgery” (altering genitals). Gender affirming surgery is sometimes referred to as “gender reassignment surgery” or “gender confirming surgery.” [47]

GENDER EXPRESSION
External manifestations of gender, expressed through one's name, pronouns, clothing, haircut, behavior, voice, or body characteristics. Society identifies these cues as masculine and feminine, although what is considered masculine and feminine changes over time and varies by culture. [48]

GENDER IDENTITY
One's internal, deeply held sense of one's gender — as male, female, a blend of both, or neither — how individuals perceive themselves and what they call themselves. One’s gender identity can be the same or different from their sex assigned at birth. Unlike gender expression (see above), gender identity is not visible to others. [49]

GENDER NON-CONFORMING
A broad term referring to individuals who do not behave in a way that conforms to the traditional expectations of their gender or whose gender expression does not fit neatly into a category. [50]

GENDER ROLES
Society places arbitrary rules and roles, how one is supposed to act, dress, feel, think, relate to others, etc., on each of us based on a person’s sex (what genitalia they have). [51]

GENOCIDE
The 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide defines genocide as any of a number of acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, and forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. [52]

H

HARASSMENT
Harassment is a form of illegal discrimination defined as unwelcome conduct that is based on race, color, sex, religion, national origin, disability, and/or age. Harassment becomes unlawful when 1) enduring the offensive conduct becomes a condition of continued employment, or 2) the conduct is severe or pervasive enough to create a work environment that a reasonable person would consider intimidating, hostile, or abusive. Anti-discrimination laws also prohibit harassment against individuals in retaliation for filing a discrimination charge, testifying, or participating in any way in an investigation, proceeding, or lawsuit under these laws; or opposing employment practices that they reasonably believe discriminate against individuals, in violation of these laws. [53]

HEGEMONY
A form of oppression by which those in power naturalize and legitimate their dominance. In contrast to physical force, hegemony flows through the power of taken-for-granted ideas and cultural values, which, when internalized by the masses of people, render them unconscious of the forces that structure their powerlessness. [54]

HETEROSEXISM
Heterosexism is the idea that there is a natural form of sexuality, which is inevitable and good. The structures and institutions of our society exist to perpetuate this belief. Some examples are: the invisibility of gay men and lesbians, the lack of role models in schools and the media, and the lack of legal and cultural recognition. [55]

HISPANIC OR LATINA/O/X
For U.S. governmental purposes, the terms are used interchangeably and defined as: a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The terms describe an ethnic group and not a race. Accordingly, on many federal forms, Hispanics/Latino/as also can express a racial identity on a separate race question. Hispanic, which become a term used by the U.S. Census Bureau in the 1970s, generally refers to those who are Spanish speaking. Latina/o/x is generally national origin rather than language, referring to people of Latin American descent. For many, Latina/o/x is a preferred term of self-naming, signifying identification with the empowerment movement of peoples who share a common history of colonialism and oppression. The gender-neutral term Latinx seeks to encompass people of Latin American descent of various gender identities. [56]

HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES (HBCUs)
There are 114 historically black colleges in the United States, including two-year and four-year as well as public and private institutions. Most are located in the Southeast. Four are located in the Midwestern states (including Wilberforce and Central State universities in Ohio). [57]

HISTORICALLY UNDERUTILIZED BUSINESS (HUB)
Businesses of which 51 percent or more of ownership is held by women, persons of color, or persons with disabilities. [58]

HOMOPHOBIA
The intense and irrational fear of same-sex relationships, gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. [59]

HOMOSEXUAL
A clinical term used to refer to people who are sexually attracted to members of their own sex. [60]

HUMAN RIGHTS
Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever their nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. All human rights are indivisible, whether they are civil and political rights, such as the right to life, equality before the law, and freedom of expression; economic, social, and cultural rights, such as the rights to work, social security, and education, or collective rights, such as the rights to development and self-determination, are indivisible, interrelated, and interdependent. The improvement of one right facilitates advancement of the others. Likewise, the deprivation of one right adversely affects the others. [61]

I

INCLUSION
A core element for successfully achieving diversity, inclusion is created by nurturing the culture and climate of the institution through professional development, education, policy, and practice. The objective is to create a climate that fosters belonging, respect, and value for all and encourages engagement and connection throughout the institution and community. In schools, inclusion often is used to refer to the practice of mainstreaming children with disabilities in general education classrooms. [62]

INTEGRATION
Unlike desegregation, which merely abolishes policies of separation, integration usually refers to active efforts to foster the representation and participation of groups that have historically faced institutional and social exclusion. Their presence in an environment, however, is not necessarily followed by transformation of its culture, norms, or values to reflect their own. Hence, integration should not be confused with empowerment or with equitable outcomes. [63] (See Segregation)

INTERNALIZED OPPRESSION
The process by which a member of a systematically oppressed group internalizes and acts out the negative characteristics attributed to the group. [64]

INTERSECTIONALITY
Refers to the analytical framework through which the relationship among systems of oppression can be understood. African-American women made an early contribution to this analysis in the 19th century. Recognizing that they experienced racism and sexism differently from both black men and white women even while they shared commonalities with both, they argued that a struggle that did not simultaneously address sexism and racism would only perpetuate both. Since then, movements against racism, sexism, heterosexism, disability, colonialism, and imperialism both within the United States and abroad have recognized similar correspondences, enabling more broad-based coalition-building. [65]

INTERSEX
A term used to describe congenital variations in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical (preferred term to “hermaphrodite”). [66]

ISMS
The isms usually refer to systems of privilege and oppression based on race (racism), sex (sexism), class (classism), Jewish identity (anti-Semitism), age (ageism), ability (ableism), and sexual identity (heterosexism). While they turn on different axes of social identity, these systems share several conceptual similarities. All are rooted in doctrines of superiority and inferiority; find systemic expression in individual, institutional, as well as cultural forms; and function through the dynamics of power and privilege. These common elements are often expressed in the equation prejudice plus power = oppression (ism). While the ism framework is useful as a way of recognizing the theoretical similarities or intersections across systems of oppression, many social theorists caution that it can be overly reductionist. For example, joining ism with the prefix sex suggests the binary men/women, but not the power differential that structures its parts or the group for whose privilege sexism functions. Further, it is argued that the term may be misconstrued to represent a list of equivalent phenomena, despite key functional differences. Similarly, it leaves room for the inference that systems of oppression are discretely occurring phenomena, when, in fact, they are experienced in interlocking and overlapping ways. [67] (See Intersectionality, Privilege)

L

LATINA/O/X or HISPANICS
For U.S. governmental purposes the terms are used interchangeably and defined as: a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The terms describe an ethnic group and not a race. Accordingly, on many federal forms, people who identify with this group also can express a racial identity on a separate race question. Hispanic, which became a term used by the U.S. Census Bureau in the 1970s, generally refers to those who are Spanish speaking. Latina/o/x is related to national origin rather than language, generally referring to people of Latin American descent. For many, Latina/o/x is a preferred term of self-naming, signifying identification with the empowerment movement of peoples who share a common history of colonialism and oppression. The gender-neutral and inclusive term Latinx seeks to encompass people of Latin American descent of various gender identities. [68]

LESBIAN
A term used to describe a woman who is emotionally, romantically, or physically attracted to other women. This term acknowledges the fact that homosexual women have different priorities and experiences than homosexual men. [69]

LGBTQIA
Lesbian, Gay, Bi-Sexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning, Intersex, and Asexual [70]

M

MARGINALIZATION
The experience of groups that are denied political, economic, and social equity in society, hence relegated to its margins. It also can refer to an individual who is rendered voiceless or irrelevant in particular social contexts. [71]

MINORITY
In the social sciences, the term minority may be applied to those groups that are considered protected classes based on historical exclusion and discrimination. For EEO official reporting purposes and for purposes of the workforce analysis required in Revised Executive Order No. 4, the term "minority" refers to Blacks, Hispanics, Alaskan Natives or American Indians, and Asian or Pacific Islanders. In general usage, it is commonly used to refer to people of color as in minority community and minority students. Such labels are increasingly disfavored as they naturalize the minor political, economic, and social status to which people of color have been subjected. [72] (See People of Color/Women of Color)

MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISE (MBE)
A business that is majority owned/operated/controlled by one or more member of an officially defined racial or ethnic minority group. [73]

MISOGYNY
An aggravated form of male sexism. Hatred, dislike of, or prejudice against women. [74]

MULTICULTURAL
Arising from or informed by cultural heterogeneity. As a description of pedagogical practices, it encompasses classroom strategies, content inclusion, institutional policies, and values that challenge some or all aspects of monocultural educational environments. Goals for multicultural education vary along a continuum that includes demographic inclusion, student empowerment, intergroup understanding, educational equity, and social transformation. [75]

N

NATIVE HAWAIIAN OR OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER
An individual having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. (The term "Native Hawaiian" does not include individuals who are native to the state of Hawaii by virtue of being born there.) In addition to Native Hawaiians, Guamanians, and Samoans, this category would include the following Pacific Islander groups reported in the 1990 census: Carolinian, Fijian, Kosraean, Melanesian, Micronesian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Papua New Guinean, Ponapean (Pohnpelan), Polynesian, Solomon Islander, Tahitian, Tarawa Islander, Tokelauan, Tongan, Trukese (Chuukese), and Yapese. [76]

NONRESIDENT ALIEN
A person who is not a citizen or national of the United States and has not passed the green card test or the substantial presence test. [77]

O

OPPRESSION
A system of individual, institutional, and cultural beliefs and practices that privilege a dominant group at the expense of the subordinate groups. [78] (See Discrimination, Isms, Privilege)

OUT
To disclose a person's sexual orientation to another person. To be open regarding one's sexual orientation in a given situation (as in coming out of the closet). [79] (See Coming Out, Closet)

P

PARITY
The proportional distribution of desirable outcomes, or equity, across groups. Sometimes confused with equality, this term refers to outcomes, while equality can simply mean equal treatment. Where individuals or groups are dissimilarly situated, equal treatment may be insufficient for or even detrimental to equitable outcomes. An example is individualized educational accommodations for students with disabilities, which treat some students differently to ensure their equitable access to education. [80] (See Equity)

PASSING
Passing refers to the concealment of subordinate group membership in order to access the psychological and material benefits of membership in the dominant group. Passing is not available to all members of subordinate groups, particularly those who bear easily discernable markers of their group, such as dark skin color, breasts, or physical disabilities. A popular theme in African-American literature and films, passing is sometimes motivated by feelings of shame and self-loathing stemming from the internalization of subordinate status in a system of oppression. As such, it can sever familial and community ties, provoking feelings of abandonment and resentment. At other times, however, it may be employed as a subterfuge for the purposes of disrupting the mechanisms of oppression. In either case, it should not be confused with cross-dressing, the performance of transgression of gender norms or with blackface minstrelsy, which seeks to reinforce the boundaries of whiteness through the exaggeration of contrasts with its inverse, blackness. [81] (See Internalized Oppression, Whiteness)

PEOPLE OF COLOR/WOMEN OF COLOR
The term of color embraces Black, Asian, Latino, and indigenous peoples both within the United States and transnationally, whose collective marginalization as colored peoples and colonial subjects informs coalition politics that cut across many issues. In contrast to the label minority, which carries negative connotations, of color is an example of self-naming that is positively associated with a politics of empowerment. [82] (See Minority)

PERMANENT RESIDENT ALIEN
A person who has been admitted to the United States as a lawful permanent resident. Lawful permanent residents are legally accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States. They may be issued immigrant visas by the Department of State overseas or adjusted to permanent resident status by the federal agency, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. [83]

PREJUDICE
A preconceived judgment or bias. A prejudice can be positive or negative. Prejudice is commonly conflated with the larger systems of oppression, such as racism, of which it is only a part. Prejudice is not merely a phenomenon of individual bias. It also can be understood as the bias that is built into facially neutral institutional policies and procedures as well as seemingly innocuous cultural values in ways that reproduce inequity. [84]

PRISON-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX
Described as a set of bureaucratic, political, and economic interests that encourage increased spending on imprisonment, regardless of the actual need. The prison industrial complex is a confluence of special interests that has given prison construction in the United States a seemingly unstoppable momentum. [85]

PRIVILEGE
Privilege is best understood as the systematic advantage that is conferred to one group at the expense of another. The function of hegemony is to rationalize privilege as natural, legitimate, and earned. Hence privilege goes unnamed while its effects, described by such euphemistic terms as under-privilege and disadvantage, are often blamed on individual misbehavior, character flaws, and cultural deficiencies. Terms such as white privilege, male privilege, and heterosexual privilege make explicit the relationship between privilege and the group for whom it is intended to function. [86]

PROTECTED CLASS
A protected class is a group that has been subjected to the documented past and continuing effects of illegal discrimination and whose civil rights, consequently, require legislative and legal reiteration and re-enforcement. In the United States, protected classes include members of certain racial and ethnic groups, women, persons over 40, qualifying veterans, and persons with disabilities. The protections for which they are explicitly named are frequently misconstrued as special rights that are unavailable to other groups. In fact, they are merely an extension of equal protection to them of rights that are guaranteed to all citizens. [87] (See Discrimination)

Q

QUEER
A term adopted by many gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people as a strong, all-inclusive, confrontational, and political label for the LGBTQIA community. Historically used as a hostile label, it is now often used within the community to express fluid identities and orientations. [88]

R

RACE
Refers to a group of people who share similar and distinct physical characteristics and shared cultural practices. The definition of race has changed among scholars over time, moving from a scientific or biological concept to a social concept. Racial categories (including those included in questionnaires like the U.S. census) generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in the country and not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. [89]

RACIALIZE
To assign human worth and value and structure benefits on the basis of a racial taxonomy. [90]

RACISM
A system of oppression based on the social construction of a racial hierarchy, which is expressed in individual, institutional, and cultural forms and functions for the benefit of the dominant race at the expense of the others. [91] (See Race)

RACIST
A member of the group for which racism is structured. [92] (See Isms, Privilege, Race, Racism)

REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION
(A) Making existing facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities; and (B) job restructuring, part-­time or modified work schedules, reassignment to a vacant position, acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, appropriate adjustment or modifications of examinations, training materials or policies, the provision of qualified readers or interpreters, and other similar accommodations for individuals with disabilities. [93]

RETALIATION
An employer may not fire, demote, harass, or otherwise "retaliate" against an individual for filing a charge of discrimination, participating in a discrimination proceeding, or otherwise opposing discrimination. The same laws that prohibit discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, and disability, as well as wage differences between men and women performing substantially equal work, also prohibit retaliation against individuals who oppose unlawful discrimination or participate in an employment discrimination proceeding. [94]

S

SAFE SPACE
Spaces that are created of, by, and for members of marginalized or underrepresented social groups who share common or similar histories and experiences, and/or are routinely subjected to and similarly impacted by socioeconomic, cultural, political, and other societal hierarchies and oppression. Safe spaces are generally identity- and/or issue-experience based. [95]

SEGREGATION
Segregation commonly refers to the system of racial exclusion created for the purpose of upholding a system of racial privilege for whites. Though de jure segregation is illegal, de facto segregation, particularly in housing and education, contributes to the perpetuation of racial disparities across many spheres. [96] (See Integration)

SEX
The division of a species on the basis of reproductive organs. Sex is not interchangeable with gender, which connotes social definitions of sex role assignments. [97] (See Gender)

SEXISM
A system of oppression based on social constructions of gender superiority and inferiority, which is expressed in individual, institutional, as well as cultural forms and functions for the benefit of the dominant sex at the expense of others. [98] (See Isms)

SEXIST
A member of the group for which racism is structured. [92] (See Isms, Privilege, Race, Racism)

SEXUAL HARASSMENT
A form of illegal sex discrimination, sexual harassment is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment. [100]

SEXUAL ORIENTATION
This term describes an individual's enduring physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to another person. Gender identity and sexual orientation are not the same. Sexual orientation is not a choice, lifestyle, or behavior, it is an inner sense of identity. Sexual orientation is only one small aspect of a person's being. [101]

T

TITLE IV (OF THE 1964 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT)
Federal law prohibiting discrimination in education on the basis of race, color, religion, and national origin by public elementary and secondary schools as well as public institutions of higher learning. [102]

TITLE VI (OF THE 1964 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT)
Federal law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin in programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance, including educational institutions. If a recipient of federal assistance is found to have discriminated and voluntary compliance cannot be achieved, the federal agency providing the assistance can initiate fund termination proceedings or refer the matter to the Department of Justice for appropriate legal action. [103]

TITLE VII (OF THE 1964 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT)
Federal law prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of race, sex, color, religion, and national origin. Federal financial assistance is not a factor. Title VII applies to employers with fifteen or more employees, including federal, state, and local governments. It also applies to employment agencies and to labor organizations. [104]

TITLE IX (OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS OF 1972, AS AMENDED)
Federal law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex in any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. The law covers employees and students; some key issue areas include: recruitment, admissions, and counseling; financial assistance; athletics; sex-based harassment including sexual violence; treatment of pregnant and parenting students; discipline; single-sex education; and employment. Title IX also covers retaliation against any person for opposing an unlawful educational practice or policy or any person who made charges, testified, or participated in any complaint action under Title IX. [105]

TRANSGENDER
An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth. People under the transgender umbrella may describe themselves using one or more of a wide variety of terms — including transgender. “Trans” is shorthand for transgender. [106]

TRANSITION
Altering one's birth sex is not a one-step procedure, it is a complex process that occurs over a long period of time. Transition includes some or all of the following: personal, medical, and legal steps: telling one's family, friends, and co-workers; using a different name and new pronouns; dressing differently; changing one's name and/or sex on legal documents; hormone therapy; and possibly (though not always) one or more types of surgery. The exact steps involved in transition vary from person to person. [107]

TRIO
Under U.S. Department of Education guidelines, a person who is of the first generation in their family to attain a baccalaureate degree is eligible for a group of federally funded fee grant programs, including Student Support Services (SSS), Upward Bound, and Talent Search. [108]

W

WHITE
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. [109]

WHITENESS
Critical social theorists distinguish White as a racial category from the concept of whiteness as a locus of privilege that accrues to members of that category. In that sense, it describes an identity, an ideology, and a set of practices that perpetuate white racial dominance. [110]

WOMEN BUSINESS ENTERPRISE (WBE)
A business that is 51 percent or more woman-owned/-operated/-controlled. [111]

WOMANIST
A term coined by Alice Walker to describe the experiences and perspectives of black women, in contrast to those of white middle-class women on which feminism has been centered. Walker defined the term accordingly: 1. From womanish. (opp. of "girlish," i.e., frivolous, irresponsible, not serious.) A black feminist or feminist of color. ... Usually referring to outrageous, audacious, courageous, or willful behavior. Wanting to know more and in greater depth than is considered "good" for one. ... Responsible. In charge. Serious. 2. Also: A woman who loves other women, sexually and/or nonsexually. Appreciates and prefers women's culture, women's emotional flexibility (values tears as natural counterbalance of laughter), and women's strength. ... Committed to the survival and wholeness of entire people, male and female. Not separatist, except periodically, for health." [112]

DAC Glossary Citations

Works Cited

Credit to Xavier University for many of these terms and as the inspiration for this glossary.

[1] Ableism: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[2] Achievement Gap: https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/studies/gaps/  

[3] Adverse Impact: http://www.uniformguidelines.com/questionandanswers.html#2

[4] Affirmative Action: http://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-8992-17589--F,00.html ; https://www.dol.gov/general/topic/hiring/affirmativeact

[5] Affirmative Action Program: http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=3b71cb5b215c393fe910604d33c9fed1&rgn=div5&view=text&node=41:1.2.3.1.2&idno=41#sp41.1.60_62.b

[6] African American or Black: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards

[7] ADEA: http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/adea.html

[8] Ageism: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[9] American Indian or Alaska Native: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards

[10] ADA: http://eeoc.gov/policy/ada.html  

[11] Asian: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards

[12] Assimilation: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[13] Bias: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[14] Bicultural: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[15] Biracial: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[16] Bisexual: http://www.hrc.org/resources/glossary-of-terms

[17] Black or African American: https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/; http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/

[18] Cisgender: http://www.hrc.org/resources/glossary-of-terms

[19] Civil Rights: hhttp://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[20] Civil Rights Act of 1964: http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/vii.html

[21] Civil Rights Act of 1991: http://eeoc.gov/policy/cra91.html

[22] Class: Adams, M, Lee Anne Bell, and Pat Griffin, eds. Classism Curriculum Design. Felice Yeskel and Betsy Leondar-Wright. Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice. New York: Routledge, 1997, 233.

[23] Classism: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[24] Climate: Nivet, Marc A., Castillo-Page, Laura, Schoolcraft Conrad, Sarah. A Diversity and Inclusion Framework for Medical Education. Academic Medicine: Volume 91, Issue 1. July 2016.  http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Citation/2016/07000/A_Diversity_and_Inclusion_Framework_for_Medical.36.aspx

[25] Closet: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[26] Colorblindness:  http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[27] Coming Out: http://www.sacsc.ca/PDF%20files/Resources/Lesbian_&_Gay_Youth.pdf

[28] Culture: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm; Nivet, Marc A., Castillo-Page, Laura, Schoolcraft Conrad, Sarah. A Diversity and Inclusion Framework for Medical Education. Academic Medicine: Volume 91, Issue 1. July 2016.  http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Citation/2016/07000/A_Diversity_and_Inclusion_Framework_for_Medical.36.aspx

[29] Disability: http://eeoc.gov/types/ada.html

[30] Discrimination: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[31] Disparate Treatment: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[32] Disparities: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[33] Diversity: Nivet, Marc A., Castillo-Page, Laura, Schoolcraft Conrad, Sarah. A Diversity and Inclusion Framework for Medical Education. Academic Medicine: Volume 91, Issue 1. July 2016.  http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Citation/2016/07000/A_Diversity_and_Inclusion_Framework_for_Medical.36.aspx

[34] EEO: https://www.dol.gov/general/topic/discrimination

[35] EEOC: http://www.eeoc.gov

[36] EPA: http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/epa.html

[37] ERA: http://www.equalrightsamendment.org/overview.htm

[38] Equality: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[39] Equity: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[40] Ethnic Group: Adapted from http://www.crr.ca/divers-files/englossary-feb2005.pdf

[41] Ethnicity: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/raceqandas.html

[42] Ethnocentrism: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[43] FMLA: https://www.dol.gov/whd/fmla/

[44] Feminism: http://www.dol.gov/esa/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs28.pdf

[45] Feminist: Coalition Building Among People of Color: A discussion with Angela Y. Davis and Elizabeth Martínez in Enunciating Our Terms: Women of Color in Collaboration and Conflict Inscriptions 7 Editors: María Ochoa and Teresia Teaiwa © 1994, Center for Cultural Studies at
http://www2.ucsc.edu/culturalstudies/PUBS/Inscriptions/vol_7/Davis.html

[46] Gay: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[47] Gender Affirming Surgery: https://dos.cornell.edu/sites/dos.cornell.edu/files/lgbtrc/documents/trans%20terms.pdf 

[48] Gender Expression: http://www.glaad.org/reference/transgender; http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[49] Gender Identity: http://www.hrc.org/resources/glossary-of-terms

[50] Gender Non-Conforming: http://www.hrc.org/resources/glossary-of-terms

[51] Gender Roles: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[52] Genocide: http://www.un.org/millennium/law/iv-1.htm  

[53] Harassment: http://eeoc.gov/types/harassment.html

[54] Hegemony: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[55] Heterosexism: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[56] Hispanic: https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/

[57] HBCU: http://www.ed.gov/about/inits/list/whhbcu/edlite-list.html#list

[58] HUB: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[59] Homophobia: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[60] Homosexual: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[61] Human Rights: http://www.un.org/events/humanrights/udhr60/declaration.shtml

[62] Inclusion: Nivet, Marc A., Castillo-Page, Laura, Schoolcraft Conrad, Sarah. A Diversity and Inclusion Framework for Medical Education. Academic Medicine: Volume 91, Issue 1. July 2016.  http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Citation/2016/07000/A_Diversity_and_Inclusion_Framework_for_Medical.36.aspx

[63] Integration: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[64] Internalized Oppression: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[65] Intersectionality: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[66] Intersex: https://dos.cornell.edu/sites/dos.cornell.edu/files/lgbtrc/documents/trans%20terms.pdf

[67] Isms:  http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[68] Latino/o/x: https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/;   https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/12/08/students-adopt-gender-nonspecific-term-latinx-be-more-inclusive

[69] Lesbian: http://www.hrc.org/resources/glossary-of-terms; http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[70] LGBTQIA: http://lgbtqia.ucdavis.edu/educated/glossary.html

[71] Marginalization: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[72] Minority: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[73] Minority Business Enterprise (MBE): http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[74] Misogyny: http://www.publiceye.org/glossary/glossary_big.html#m; http://www.dictionary.com/browse/misogyny     

[75] Multicultural: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[76] Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/

[77] Nonresident Alien: https://www.irs.gov/individuals/international-taxpayers/taxation-of-nonresident-aliens

[78] Oppression: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[79] Out: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[80] Parity: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[81] Passing: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[82] People of Color: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[83] Permanent Resident Alien: https://www.uscis.gov/tools/glossary/permanent-resident-alien

[84] Prejudice: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[85] Prison-Industrial Complex: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[86] Privilege: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[87] Protected Class: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[88] Queer: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm ; http://www.hrc.org/resources/glossary-of-terms

[89] Race: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm; http://www.census.gov/topics/population/race/about.html

[90] Racialize: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[91] Racism: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[92] Racist: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[93] Reasonable Accommodation: http://eeoc.gov/policy/ada.hmtl  

[94] Retaliation: http://eeoc.gov/types/retaliation.html

[95] Safe Space: https://new.oberlin.edu/dotAsset/2012201.pdf

[96] Segregation: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[97] Sex: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[98] Sexism: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[99] Sexist:  http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[100] Sexual Harassment: http://eeoc.gov/types/sexual_harassment.html

[101] Sexual Orientation: http://www.hrc.org/resources/glossary-of-terms; http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[102] Title IV: https://www.justice.gov/crt/types-educational-opportunities-discrimination

[103] Title VI: https://www.justice.gov/crt/fcs/TitleVI-Overview

[104] Title VII: https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/titlevii.cfm; https://www.shrm.org/legalissues/federalresources/federalstatutesregulationsandguidanc/pages/titleviiofthecivilrightsactof1964.aspx  

[105] Title IX: https://www2.ed.gov/policy/rights/reg/ocr/edlite-34cfr106.htmlhttp://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/tix_dis.html

[106] Transgender: https://dos.cornell.edu/sites/dos.cornell.edu/files/lgbtrc/documents/trans%20terms.pdf   

[107] Transition: http://www.glaad.org/reference/transgender

[108] TRIO: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/trio/index.html

[109] White: https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/

[110] Whiteness: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[111] WBE: http://www.xavier.edu/diversity/Glossary-of-Diversity-Terminology.cfm

[112] Womanist: Walker, Alice. In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens: Womanist Prose. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003.